Juvenile Justice

IX. Conclusion

Juvenile justice faces an uncertain future. Despite this fact, it continues to operate (at least in part) under the parens patriae philosophy upon which it was built. The system now incorporates elements of due process and adapts to the changing demands placed on it. There is little doubt that this metamorphosis will continue in the future.

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  1. Bishop, D. M. (2000). Juvenile offenders in the adult criminal justice system. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice (Vol. 27, pp. 81–165). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  2. Butts, J. A., Buck, J., & Coggershall, M. B. (2002). The impact of teen courts on young offenders. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
  3. Fabricant, M. (1983). Juveniles in the family courts. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  4. Feld, B. (1999). Bad kids: Race and the transformation of the juvenile court. New York: Oxford University Press.
  5. Griffin, P. (2005). National overviews. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
  6. Griffin, P., Szymanski, L., & King, M. (2006). National overviews. State Juvenile Justice Profiles. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
  7. Jones, J. B. (2004). Access to counsel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
  8. Noriega, C. (2000). Stick a fork in it: Is juvenile justice done? New York Law School Journal of Human Rights, 16, 669–698.
  9. Puzzanchera, C., & Sickmund, M. (2008). Juvenile court statistics 2005. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
  10. Puzzanchera, C., Stahl, A. L., Finnegan, T. A., Tierney, N., & Snyder, H. N. (2004). Juvenile Court Statistics 2000. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
  11. Sanborn, J. (1994). Remnants of parens patriae in the adjudicatory hearing: Is a fair trial possible in juvenile court? Crime & Delinquency, 40, 599–615.
  12. Tobey, A., Grisso, T., & Schwartz, R. (2000). Youths’ trial participation as seen by youths and their attorneys: An exploration of competence-based issues. In T. Grisso & R. Schwartz (Eds.), Youth on trial: A developmental perspective on juvenile justice (pp. 105–138). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.