Restorative Justice

X. Conclusion

Restorative justice is a “new” approach based on ancient practices, unique justice values, and core principles. These justice principles guide a new justice process based on maximizing participation of core stakeholders—victim, offender, and community—and repairing the harm caused by crime. New outcomes emphasize accountability for the offender based on taking responsibility to make amends to victim and community and rebuilding or strengthening relationships of both offender and victim to their communities and supporters.

Challenges include moving beyond a programmatic approach to a holistic focus that seeks a restorative outcome in every case and uses restorative justice principles to solve major systemic problems in criminal justice and communities. Public opinion generally favors restorative justice practices, and prefers alternatives forms of accountability for most crimes. Yet, the continued commitment of U.S. policymakers to retributive punishment and to an emerging prison industrial complex that appears to be creating the societal condition sociologist Bruce Western (2007) now calls “mass imprisonment” presents formidable challenges to any progressive reform. Optimism for greater use of restorative justice is based on strong research findings indicating its effectiveness in achieving multiple outcomes for multiple stakeholders, including reduced recidivism, and victim satisfaction and healing. Moreover, the connection between restorative justice principles and evidence-based theories of change at the social-psychological, peer support, and community-building levels of intervention provides further rationales for expanding these approaches. Finally, increasing recognition of a decline in and a need for revitalization of community skills in informal crime control and positive support for prosocial behavior also set the context for greater application of restorative justice solutions.

Browse criminal justice research papers or view criminal justice research topics.

Bibliography:

  1. Achilles, M., & Zehr, H. (2001). Restorative justice for crime victims: The promise, the challenge. In G. Bazemore &M. Schiff (Eds.), Restorative community justice: Repairing harm and transforming communities. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
  2. Bazemore, G. (2001). Young people, trouble, and crime: Restorative justice as a normative theory of informal social control and social support. Youth & Society, 33(2), 199–226.
  3. Bazemore, G., & Schiff, M. (2004). Juvenile justice reform and restorative justice: Guilding theory and policy from practice. Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan.
  4. Bazemore, G., & Walgrave, L. (Eds.). (1999). Restorative juvenile justice: Repairing the harm of youth crime. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
  5. Bonta, J.,Wallace-Capretta, S., Rooney, J., & Mackanoy, K. (2003). An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration. Contemporary Justice Review, 5, 319–338.
  6. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame, and reintegration. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Braithwaite, J., & Mugford, S. (1994). Conditions of successful reintegration ceremonies: Dealing with juvenile offenders. British Journal of Criminology, 34, 139–171.
  8. Butts, J., & Snyder, H. (1991). Restitution and juvenile recidivism [Monograph]. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
  9. Clark, P. (2005, Summer). When killers go home: Local justice in Rwanda. Dissent, 14–21.
  10. Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Residential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11, 527–559.
  11. Herman, J. (2000). The case of trauma and recovery. UC Berkeley Conversations With History. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people/Herman/herman-con1.html.
  12. Hudson, J., & Galaway, B. (1990). Introduction: Towards restorative justice. In B. Galaway & J. Hudson (Eds.), Criminal justice, restitution, and reconciliation (pp. 3–16). Monsey, NY: Willow Tree Press.
  13. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives.Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.
  14. Maxwell, G., & Morris, A. (1993). Family participation, cultural diversity and victim involvement in youth justice: A New Zealand experiment.Wellington, New Zealand:Victoria University.
  15. McKnight, J. (1995). The careless society: Community and its counterfeits. New York: Basic Books.
  16. Michalowski, R. J. (1985). Order, law, and crime. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  17. Molm, L., & Cook, K. (1995). Social exchange and exchange networks. In K. Cook, G. Fine, & J. House (Eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology (pp. 241–260). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  18. Moore, D., & McDonald, J. (2000). Transforming conflict in workplaces and other communities. Sydney, Australia: Transformative Justice Australia.
  19. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  20. Rodriguez, N. (2004). Restorative justice, communities, and delinquency: Whom do we reintegrate? Criminology & Public Policy, 4, 103–130.
  21. Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multi-level study of collective efficacy. Science Magazine, 77, 918–924.
  22. Schneider, A. (1986). Restitution and recidivism rates of juvenile offenders: Results from four experimental studies. Criminology, 24, 533–552.
  23. Sherman, L., & Strang, H. (2007). Restorative justice: The evidence [Monograph]. Cambridge, UK: The Smith Institute.
  24. Shiraldi, V., & Soler, M. (1998). The will of the people: The public’s opinion of the Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997. Crime & Delinquency, 44(4), 590–601.
  25. Tyler, T. (1990). Why people obey the law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  26. Van Ness, D., & Strong, K. H. (1997). Restoring justice. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
  27. Von Hirsch, A. (1976). Doing justice. New York: Hill & Wang.
  28. Weitekamp, E. G. (1999). The history of restorative justice. In G. Bazemore & L. Walgrave (Eds.), Restorative juvenile justice: Repairing the harm of youth crime (pp. 75–102). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
  29. Western, B. (2007). Mass imprisonment and economic inequality. Social Research, 74(2), 509–533.
  30. Zehr, H. (1990). Changing lenses: A new focus for criminal justice. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press.