Along with the anomie/strain and social learning traditions, Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) self-control theory has emerged in the last couple of decades as one of the major criminological paradigms in the field. Although a virtual empirical consensus has been reached with regard to the consequences of self-control (i.e., its effect on criminal and analogous behaviors), there is considerably less agreement among criminologists concerning the causes of self-control. What is clear, however, is that self-control as an explanation of criminal and deviant behavior is here to stay. What remains to be seen is how diligent scholars will continue to be in integrating it with other theories and how committed the self-control purists will be in resisting such a movement.
Read more about Criminology Theories.
- Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. S. (2004). Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and application (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Roxbury.
- Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street. New York: Norton.
- Baumeister, R. F. (2002). Ego depletion and self-control failure: An energy model of the self ’s regulatory function. Self Identity, 1, 129–136.
- Beccaria, C. (1963). On crimes and punishments. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill. (Original work published 1764)
- Blumstein,A., Cohen, J., Roth, J.A., & Visher, C. (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- Gottfredson, D. C. (2001). Schools and delinquency. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Gottfredson, M. R. (2006). The empirical status of control theory in criminology. In Taking stock (pp. 77–100). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
- Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Grasmick, H. G., Tittle, C.R., Bursik, R. J., & Arneklev, B. K. (1993). Testing the core empirical implications of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 5–29.
- Hay, C. (2001). Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: A test of self-control theory. Criminology, 39, 707–736.
- Hay C., Fortson, E. N., Hollist, D. R., Altheimer, I., & Schaible, L. A. (2006). The impact of community disadvantage on the relationship between the family and juvenile crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 326–356.
- Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Kasarda, J. D., & Janowitz, M. (1974). Community attachment in mass society. American Sociological Review, 39, 328–339.
- Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T., & Ball, R.A. (2007). Criminological theory: Context and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- McGloin, J. M., Pratt, T. C., & Maahs, J. (2004). Re-thinking the IQ–delinquency relationship: A longitudinal analysis of multiple theoretical models. Justice Quarterly, 21, 601–631.
- McGloin, J. M., Pratt, T. C., & Piquero, A. (2006). A life-course analysis of the criminogenic effects of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy: A research note on the mediating impact of neuropsychological deficit. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 412–426.
- Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.
- Murray, C. A. (1984). Losing ground: American social policy, 1950–1980. New York: Basic Books.
- Nofziger, S. (2008). The “cause” of low self-control: The influence of maternal self-control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45, 191–224.
- Perrone, D., Sullivan, C., Pratt, T. C., & Margaryan, S. (2004). Parental efficacy, self-control, and delinquent behavior: A test of a general theory of crime on a nationally-representative sample. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48, 298–312.
- Pratt, T. C. (2009). Addicted to incarceration: Corrections policy and the politics of misinformation in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: A metaanalysis. Criminology, 38, 931–964.
- Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2005). Assessing macro-level predictors and theories of crime: A meta-analysis. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 32, 373–450.
- Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L., & Unnever, J. D. (2002). The relationship of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to crime and delinquency: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 4, 344–360.
- Pratt, T. C., McGloin, J. M., & Fearn, N. E. (2006). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and criminal/ deviant behavior: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50, 672–690.
- Pratt, T. C., Turner, M. G., & Piquero, A. R. (2004). Parental socialization and community context: A longitudinal analysis of the structural sources of low self-control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 219–243.
- Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Sullivan, C., McGloin, J. M., Pratt, T. C., & Piquero, A. R. (2006). Rethinking the “norm” of offender generality: Investigating specialization in the short-term. Criminology, 44, 199–234.
- Turner,M. G., Piquero,A. R., & Pratt,T. C. (2005).The school context as a source of self-control. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 327–339.
- Unnever, J. D., Cullen, F. T., & Pratt, T. C. (2003). Parental management, ADHD, and delinquent involvement: Reassessing Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory. Justice Quarterly, 20, 471–500.
- Walsh, A. (2002). Biosocial criminology: Introduction and integration. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
- Wright, J. P., & Beaver, K. (2005). Do parents matter in creating self-control in their children? A genetically informed test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory of low self-control. Criminology, 43, 1169–1202.